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    Our shared values in Y5: To care for myself and others by making sure we are all safe and happy. To be honest in all we do/say. We always work hard and try our best. We listen carefully and thoroughly. We make sure we are always giving our best, so everyone else can be the best that they can be. We look after our property.
    We like to be 'leaders' and not 'followers' We always choose the 'good' light inside of us. We make the right choices at the right time.




    Anyone can train hard for a short period. Winners give their best every hour of every day for months on end.



    In 5V we like to stop and think - before we do or speak.

    'Give children a thought and they’ll learn for a day. Teach them to think and they’ll learn for a lifetime.’David Hyerle
    If you can imagine it, you can achieve it; if you can dream it, you can become it.- William Arthur Ward
    You cannot write it, if you cannot say it; you cannot say it, if you haven't heard it. - Pie Corbett

    We love to share our way of thinking, it does help us in our learning!

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    Rivers- Geography Topic
    The Titanic - 2012 - 100 years!

  • Be awesome!



    Queen Victoria: Reigned: 1837-1901 [63 years and 7 months]

Science 2

WHY DOES INHALING HELIUM CHANGE YOUR VOICE?
Helium is not the only gas to change the sound of your voice.
balloonshelium
Sound travels faster through a lighter gas than a heavier one because the individual molecules have less mass and so can move more quickly in response to the pressure changes of the sound wave. The speed of sound in helium is almost three times faster than in air and this changes the resonant frequency of your throat so that high frequencies sound louder than low ones.

If you inhale a gas that is denser than air, such as sulphur hexafluoride, the sound travels at just 39 per cent of its speed in air and your voice sounds deeper.

The Water Cycle song!

Episode 1
Rivers – our topic in Geography in Spain

Episode 2
Episode 3
Rivers – our Geography topic.

Episode 4
Water in the Netherlands

watercycle11

All these experiments from Sciencebob.com If you plan to try any of these at home, you NEED TO MAKE SURE YOU DO IT WITH AN ADULT! NEVER EVER TRY THINGS OUT ALL BY YOURSELF!

sciencepaperclip

scienceyouwillneed

clean dry paper clips
tissue paper
a bowl of water
pencil with eraser

Fill the bowl with water
Try to make the paper clip float…not much luck, huh?
Tear a piece of tissue paper about half the size of a dollar bill
GENTLY drop the tissue flat onto the surface of the water
GENTLY place a dry paper clip flat onto the tissue (try not to touch the water or the tissue)
Use the eraser end of the pencil to carefully poke the tissue (not the paper clip) until the tissue sinks. With some luck, the tissue will sink and leave the paper clip floating!

scienceFloatingpaperclip1

scienceFloatingpaperclip2

scienceFloatingpaperclip3

sciencepaperclipfloat

sciencehowdoesitwork

How is this possible? With a little thing we scientists call SURFACE TENSION. Basically it means that there is a sort of skin on the surface of water where the water molecules hold on tight together. If the conditions are right, they can hold tight enough to support your paper clip. The paper clip is not truly floating, it is being held up by the surface tension. Many insects, such as water striders, use this “skin” to walk across the surface of a stream.

The project above is a DEMONSTRATION. To make it a true experiment, you can try to answer these questions:
1. How many paperclips can the surface tension hold?
2. Does the shape of the paperclip affect its floating ability?
3. What liquids have the strongest surface tension?
4. Can the surface tension of water be made stronger? (try sprinkling baby powder on the surface)
scienceexperiments

scienceyouwillneed

A packet of yeast (available in the grocery store)
A small, clean, clear, plastic soda bottle (16 oz. or smaller)
1 teaspoon of sugar
Some warm water
A small balloon

sciencewhattodo

1. Fill the bottle up with about one inch of warm water.
( When yeast is cold or dry the micro organisms are resting.)
2. Add all of the yeast packet and gently swirl the bottle a few seconds.
(As the yeast dissolves, it becomes active – it comes to life! Don’t bother looking for movement, yeast is a microscopic fungus organism.)
3. Add the sugar and swirl it around some more.
Like people, yeast needs energy (food) to be active, so we will give it sugar. Now the yeast is “eating!”
4. Blow up the balloon a few times to stretch it out then place the neck of the balloon over the neck of the bottle.
5. Let the bottle sit in a warm place for about 20 minutes
If all goes well the balloon will begin to inflate!

sciencehowdoesitwork

As the yeast eats the sugar, it releases a gas called carbon dioxide. The gas fills the bottle and then fills the balloon as more gas is created. We all know that there are “holes” in bread, but how are they made? The answer sounds a little like the plot of a horror movie. Most breads are made using YEAST. Believe it or not, yeast is actually living micro-organisms! When bread is made, the yeast becomes spread out in flour. Each bit of yeast makes tiny gas bubbles and that puts millions of bubbles (holes) in our bread before it gets baked. Naturalist’s note – The yeast used in this experiment are the related species and strains of Saccharomyces cervisiae. (I’m sure you were wondering about that.) Anyway, when the bread gets baked in the oven, the yeast dies and leaves all those bubbles (holes) in the bread. Yum.

The project above is a DEMONSTRATION. To make it a true experiment, you can try to answer these questions:
1. Does room temperature affect how much gas is created by the yeast?
2. Does the size of the container affect how much gas is created?
3. What water/room temperature helps the yeast create the most gas?
4. What “yeast food” helps the yeast create the most gas? (try sugar, syrup, honey, etc.)

scienceexperiments
TRY SOME LAVA IN A CUP

scienceyouwillneed

* A clear drinking glass
* 1/4 cup vegetable oil
* 1 teaspoon salt
* Water
* Food coloring (optional)

sciencewhattodo
scienceLavaCup1

Fill the glass about 3/4 full of water.
Add about 5 drops of food coloring – I like red for the lava look.
Slowly pour the vegetable oil into the glass. See how the oil floats on top – cool huh? It gets better.
Now the fun part: Sprinkle the salt on top of the oil.
Watch blobs of lava move up and down in your glass!
If you liked that, add another teaspoon of salt to keep the effect going.
scienceLavaCup2
scienceLavaCup3

scienceexperiments

 

CLEAN PENNIES WITH VINEGAR

scienceyouwillneed

* A few old (not shiny) pennies
* 1/4 cup white vinegar
* 1 teaspoon salt
* Non-metal bowl
* Paper towels

What to do

Pour the vinegar into the bowl and add the salt – stir it up.
Put about 5 pennies into the bowl and count to 10 slowly.
Take out the pennies and rinse them out in some water. Admire their shininess!

How does it work?

There is some pretty fancy chemistry going on in that little bowl of yours. It turns out that vinegar is an acid, and the acid in the vinegar reacts with the salt to remove what chemists call copper oxide which was making your pennies dull. You’re not done yet, though, lets try another experiment:

Add more pennies to the bowl for 10 seconds, but this time , don’t rinse them off. Place them on a paper towel to dry off. In time the pennies will turn greenish-blue as a chemical called malachite forms on your pennies. But wait, you’re still not done yet.

Place one or two nuts and bolts in the vinegar and watch – they may become COPPER in color! The vinegar removed some of the copper from the pennies, if there is enough copper in the vinegar, the copper will become attracted by to the metal in the nuts and bolts and they will take on a new copper color – cool.

MAKE IT AN EXPERIMENT

The project above is a DEMONSTRATION. To make it a true experiment, you can try to answer these questions:

1. Will other acids (like lemon juice or orange juice) work as well?

2. Does this cleaning chemistry work on other coins?

3. Do other amounts of salt make a difference in the chemistry of the experiment?

 

A clean 16 ounce plastic soda bottle
1/2 cup 20-volume hydrogen peroxide liquid (20-volume is a 6% solution, ask an adult to get this from a beauty supply store or hair salon)
1 Tablespoon (one packet) of dry yeast
3 Tablespoons of warm water
Liquid dish washing soap
Food colouring
Small cup
Safety goggles
NOTE: As you can see from the picture, foam will overflow from the bottle, so be sure to do this experiment on a washable surface, or place the bottle on a tray.

1. Hydrogen peroxide can irritate skin and eyes, so put on those safety goggles and ask an adult to carefully pour the hydrogen peroxide into the bottle.

2. Add 8 drops of your favourite food colouring into the bottle.

3. Add about 1 tablespoon of liquid dish soap into the bottle and swish the bottle around a bit to mix it.

4. In a separate small cup, combine the warm water and the yeast together and mix for about 30 seconds.

5. Now the adventure starts! Pour the yeast water mixture into the bottle (a funnel helps here) and watch the foaminess begin!

Foam is awesome! The foam you made is special because each tiny foam bubble is filled with oxygen. The yeast acted as a catalyst (a helper) to remove the oxygen from the hydrogen peroxide. Since it did this very fast, it created lots and lots of bubbles. Did you notice the bottle got warm. Your experiment created a reaction called an Exothermic Reaction – that means it not only created foam, it created heat! The foam produced is just water, soap, and oxygen so you can clean it up with a sponge and pour any extra liquid left in the bottle down the drain.

This experiment is sometimes called “Elephant’s Toothpaste” because it looks like toothpaste coming out of a tube, but don’t get the foam in your mouth!
The project above is a DEMONSTRATION. To make it a true experiment, you can try to answer these questions:
1. Does the amount of yeast change the amount of foam produced?
2. Does the experiment work as well if you add the dry yeast without mixing it with water?
3. Does the size of the bottle affect the amount of foam produced?
Rapid Color Changing Chemistry!

Sometimes it’s hard to tell SCIENCE from MAGIC – and this little demonstration is a great example of that. In this experiment you will watch an almost clear liquid suddenly turn dark blue in a flash. It takes a bit of preparation, and probably a trip to the pharmacy for materials, but we think it’s worth it.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION: This experiment should only be done with the help of an adult. Iodine will stain just about anything it touches and it can be hazardous. Hydrogen peroxide can cause eye and skin irritation – safety goggles are needed throughout the experiment. Be sure your helpful adult reads the caution labels on each container.
3 clear plastic cups 4 ounces or larger
A 1000 mg Vitamin C tablet from the pharmacy (you can also use two 500mg)
Tincture of iodine (2%) also from the pharmacy
Hydrogen peroxide (3%) yep, also from the pharmacy
Liquid laundry starch (see below for alternatives)
Safety goggles
Measuring spoons
Measuring cup
An adult helper

Put on those safety goggles and mash the 1000 mg Vitamin C tablet by placing it into a plastic bag and crushing it with a rolling pin or the back of a large spoon. Get it into as much of a fine powder as possible. Then put all the powder in the first cup and add 2 ounces (60 ml) of warm water. Stir for at least 30 seconds. (The water may be a little cloudy) Let’s call this “LIQUID A”
Now put 1 teaspoon (5 ml) of your LIQUID A into a new cup and add to it: 2 oz (60 ml) of warm water and 1 teaspoon (5 ml) of the iodine. Notice the brown iodine turned clear! Let’s call this “LIQUID B.” By the way, you’re done with LIQUID A – you can put it aside.
In the last cup, mix 2 oz of warm water, 1 Tablespoon (15 ml) of the hydrogen peroxide and 1/2 teaspoon (2.5 ml) of the liquid starch. This is, you guessed it, “LIQUID C”
Okay, that was a lot of preparation, on to the fun part. Gather the friends and family and pour all of LIQUID B into LIQUID C. Then pour them back and fourth between the 2 cups a few times. Place the cup down and observe….be patient….somewhere between a few seconds and a few minutes, the liquid will suddenly turn dark blue!
This is an example of the chemical reaction know as the IODINECLOCK REACTION. It is called a clock reaction because you can change the amount if time it takes for the liquids to turn blue. (see experiments below) The chemistry of the demonstration gets a bit complicated, but basically it is a battle of chemistry between the starch which is trying to turn the iodine blue, and the Vitamin C which is keeping it from turning blue. Eventually the Vitamin C loses and, bam! – you get instant blueness.

Note: If you do not have liquid starch, you can also use 1/2 teaspoon of corn starch or potato starch. The liquids will be more cloudy and the reaction will happen a bit more slowly, but it’s still impressive.

Clean up: Carefully pour all liquids down the drain with plenty of water and wash your hands. Recycle the cups or dispose of them in the trash

The project above is a DEMONSTRATION. To make it a true experiment, you can try to answer these questions:

1. Does the temperature of the water affect how quickly the liquids turn blue?
2. Does the amount of Vitamin C added (Liquid A) affect how fast the liquid turns blue?
3. Does stirring the liquids more affect how fast the liquids turn blue?


The Digestive system


The Heart and blood circulation

watercycle

 

See the animated Water-cycle links in the ‘Geography’-section of the sidebar.

You usually go from a gas to a liquid to a solid by removing heat from a substance. For example, water vapor in the air can become liquid water, if the temperature lowers. The gas condenses on particles as water droplets to form clouds. Eventually, the droplets get big enough to fall as rain. If it gets cold enough, the liquid water freezes and becomes a solid – hail/ice or snow.

To freeze a liquid means to turn it into a solid. So all liquids solidify when you freeze them, but the temperature at which freezing happens is different for different liquids.

How come salt melts frozen water? Liquid water freezes and becomes solid ice at 0ºC. It turns out that frozen solid water (ice) also melts at 0ºC. So, at 0ºC some of the ice is melting, and the some of the melted water is freezing—at the same time! It’s balanced—ice melts and liquid water freezes at the same temperature.

That is unless you CHANGE something, like pouring salt on the ice. At that point, as some of the ice melts into liquid water, the salt dissolves in the liquid water, and becomes salt water. And salt water freezes at a temperature way below °C. In fact, the freezing temperature of salt water may be as low as -21ºC depending upon how much salt is in it. So, if you pour salt on the ice, as the ice melts and the salt dissolves in the melted water turning it into salt water, it’s not cold enough to refreeze. Sooner or later all of the ice will melt, as long as the temperature doesn’t reach the freezing point of the salt water.

Gas in water

solid_liquid_gas1

Solids, liquids, gases

solidliquidgas

Solids, liquids and gases


Make your own slime!

solid_

liquid_

gas
Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere

What does gas weigh?

Oxygen (O2) is a kind of gas. A lot of the air you breathe is oxygen. That’s a good thing, since we need oxygen to stay alive! About 4/5ths of the air in Earth’s atmosphere is nitrogen (N2). Almost all of the rest of air is oxygen. Normal oxygen molecules have two oxygen atoms in them.

Many kinds of molecules have oxygen atoms in them. Some of the most important ones are water (H2O), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO), and Nitrogen Oxides.

Most living creatures need oxygen to get energy from food. This is called respiration. That’s why we need to breathe oxygen! Plants and some kinds of microbes make oxygen. They use sunlight to make food. That is called photosynthesis. They give off oxygen during photosynthesis.

When Earth was young, its atmosphere didn’t have much oxygen. Then microbes and plants started adding oxygen to the air. Now we have quite a bit of oxygen in the air. Lucky for us!

Nitrogen is a gas. It is found in living things like plants and animals. It is also an important part of non-living things like the air above and the dirt below. Atoms of nitrogen don’t just stay in one place. They move slowly between living things, dead things, the air, soil and water. These movements are called the nitrogen cycle.

Most of the nitrogen on Earth is in the atmosphere. Approximately 80% of the molecules in Earth’s atmosphere are made of two nitrogen atoms bonded together (N2). All plants and animals need nitrogen to make amino acids, proteins and DNA, but the nitrogen in the atmosphere is not in a form that they can use. The molecules of nitrogen in the atmosphere can become usable for living things when they are broken apart during lightning strikes or fires, by certain types of bacteria, or by bacteria associated with bean plants.

Most plants get the nitrogen they need to grow from the soils or water in which they live. Animals get the nitrogen they need by eating plants or other animals that contain nitrogen. When organisms die, their bodies decompose bringing the nitrogen into soil on land or into ocean water. Bacteria alter the nitrogen into a form that plants are able to use. Other types of bacteria are able to change nitrogen dissolved in waterways into a form that allows it to return to the atmosphere.

Methane is a kind of gas. There is a small amount of methane in the air you breathe. A methane molecule has carbon and hydrogen atoms in it.

Methane is a greenhouse gas. That means it helps make Earth warm. But if there was too much methane, that could make our planet too warm.

Where does the methane in Earth’s Atmosphere come from? Cow burps, for one place! Farming rice also puts methane into the air. Some methane also comes from garbage dumps. Termites make lots of methane, too. Swamps also make methane.

Methane can burn. It is used as a fuel. It is one of the main gases in natural gas. The heat in your home might be from natural gas. Methane is called a hydrocarbon, because it has hydrogen and carbon atoms in it.


States of Matter: Solids liquids and gases

solidliquidgas-

Click HERE to watch a video about sound travelling through solids. Also, click

HERE to watch more videos about sound.
WOW! Click HERE to know more, this is really a MUST to go to this link!

Sounds are produced when something vibrates. It could be a vibrating string… A vibrating voice box… Or a vibrating drum. Any vibration will transfer energy to the surrounding particles, which in turn pass the vibrations along, creating a sound wave. The particles vibrate back and forth as the wave’s energy passes, but they don’t actually move along with the wave. Mechanical Waves: Because sounds rely on particles to transfer energy in this way, sound waves can only travel through matter. They are mechanical waves. Sound waves can travel through solids, liquids, or gases – but never through a vacuum, which contains no particles. There is no sound in the vacuum of space. Longitudinal Waves: The particles always vibrate along the direction the wave is travelling in, which means that sound is a longitudinal wave. Pitch – Whether a sound is high or low is called the pitch of the sound. This is determined by the frequency of the wave; the number of waves passing a point each second, measured in Hertz. Pitch = frequency of wave. The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch. The lower the frequency, the lower the pitch. Amplitude. The loudness of a sound is affected by the height of the wave – called the amplitude. Volume of sound = amplitude of wave. The higher the amplitude, the louder the sound. We hear sound when vibrations travel through the air into our ears, where they cause small bones in the middle ear to vibrate. This movement is converted to electrical pulses, which are sent to our brain for decoding.

What is an echo?

When a sound wave strikes a surface it can bounce back, meaning the reflected wave can travel back to the source and be heard. The sound wave does not need a hard surface to reflect. The wave can be reflected whenever the properties of a material abruptly change. This can be at the boundary between two liquids, or the boundary between air and water. Echoes are used in sonar, for example to measure the distance to objects, and the depth of water. Because the speed of sound is known, the distance can be calculated by timing how long the echo takes to return.

Can sound travel in space?

In science fiction, explosions and engine noise can often be heard in space, but this is only done for dramatic effect. There are very few molecules in space, and it is almost a perfect vacuum. Because of this, there is nothing for sound waves to travel through, and therefore sound cannot be heard.

How are sound waves used to investigate the structure of the Earth?

Earthquakes cause waves, which travel through the Earth. These seismic waves travel at the speed of sound and tell us about the structure of the Earth. By measuring the time taken for different waves to pass through the Earth, we can predict the position and density of layers within the Earth.

How does your ear work?
The ear contains a membrane called the eardrum. When sound waves pass through air, the vibrations make the eardrum vibrate. This causes tiny bones in the ear to vibrate, which pass the vibrations to the inner ear. The inner ear contains thousands of tiny hairs and is filled with fluid. When the hairs vibrate, they stimulate nerves and send signals to the brain. This produces the sensation of “hearing” sound.

How do musical instruments produce sound?
Musical instruments are usually classified according to the way they produce sound; wind, string and percussion instruments all produce sound through resonance. All objects vibrate with a specific resonant frequency.

String instruments produce sound when strings vibrate; wind instruments use a vibrating column of air; and percussion instruments use vibrating blocks, plates, or membranes to produce sound.

What are beats?
When two sounds have a similar frequency, they can combine to produce beats. The volume of the combined sound is heard to pulse, increasing and decreasing. These beats have a frequency equal to the difference between the frequencies of the two sounds. As the frequencies become closer, the difference becomes smaller, and the beats become less frequent. This can be used to tune instruments. A tuning fork can be used to sound the required note; the instrument is then used to sound the note and adjusted until beats are heard. When the instrument is tuned the time between the beats will increase as the two notes become closer in frequency.

What is the speed of sound?
The speed of sound is different in every material. In air, the speed of sound increases slightly as temperature increases, but is approximately 340 m/s at room temperature. This is noticeable over large distances. At a distance of 100 m there will be a delay, of just under a third of a second, between seeing an event and hearing the sound associated with it.

This speed is equivalent to around 1200 km/h or 770 mph, and was first officially reached by aircraft in 1947. Although there are reports that some German aircraft flew faster than the speed of sound during World War II, these are controversial and cannot be confirmed.

What determines the speed of sound in a medium?

The speed of sound is determined by the material it travels through. Temperature can affect the speed of sound, and the speed of the vibrations in a material increases if the temperature of the medium increases. The elasticity and density of the medium also affect the speed of sound. In a dense material where the particles are heavier sound travels more slowly. The elasticity describes how much the medium changes in response to pressure. In a material which stretches easily when a force is applied, like rubber, the speed of sound is low.

How is loudness measured?
Loudness is a measure of how loud a sound is perceived to be, although this can depend on factors, such as the frequency of the sound. It is strongly related to the level of sound pressure (the increase in air pressure caused by the sound wave), which is measured in decibels. For this reason, decibels are commonly used to indicate the loudness of a sound.

The decibel scale is logarithmic. Every increase of ten decibels (one bel) results in the sound becoming ten times louder. This means that 20 dB is ten times louder than 10 dB, and 30 dB is 100 times louder than 10 dB.

These apparently small changes in the decibel level can result in a large difference in the loudness. For example, an increase of only 3 dB results in the loudness approximately doubling.
What is the range of human hearing?

Humans can hear sounds with a frequency of 20 Hz up to around 20,000 Hz. As we age, our ability to hear high frequency sounds diminishes. Dogs and cats can hear much higher frequencies; dogs can hear sounds of over 40,000 Hz, which means that whistles can be made that are audible to dogs, but silent to humans.

Click THIS LINK to read more about healthy eating and the ‘eat well’- plate.

More Science topics we will be looking at:

The Water Cycle
Click HERE for an animation on the Water Cycle. You will need to click on the ‘Water Cycle’-link on the page that will open in a new window.

The Water Cycle Song

Life Cycles: Parts of a flower, function of each part, whether each part is male or female. The life cycle of a flowering plant and the difference between pollination and fertilization, the best conditions for germination and why plants make seeds! Do you know why and how plants disperse their seeds? Do you know why wind pollinated flowers look different from insect pollinated flowers? Why do you think insect life cycles rely heavily on flowers and visa versa? What is the functions and design features of all the different parts of a plant?
Use this link to help you too!
www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips

Butterfly Life cycle

Life cycle of a frog

How do nutrients help plants? Let’s take a look.

Nitrogen is used by plants for lots of leaf growth and good green color.

Phosphorous is used by plants to help form new roots, make seeds, fruit and flowers. It’s also used by plants to help fight disease.

Potassium helps plants make strong stems and keep growing fast. It’s also used to help fight disease.

Fertilizer is one of the many garden “tools” that is used in making good gardens great gardens.

Soil is made of:

 

More topics: Gases and Change of State

Did you know: Most of the air we breathe is nitrogen, about 78% in fact. About 20% is oxygen and the rest is a mixture of gases. When nitrogen is very, very cold, at a temperature of -196C, it becomes a liquid. Liquid nitrogen is particularly useful for freezing food because nitrogen has no smell, colour or taste. Liquid nitrogen causes severe damage to your skin if you touch it, so if you are considering having a go, you must take advice and wear protective clothing.

Did you know: The make-up of our atmosphere: Nitrogen 79%, Oxygen 20.9% and minute amounts of carbon dioxide, Inert gases, water vapour and some pollutants. Do you know the properties of gases? What is the difference between a solid, a liquid and a gas?

Do you know that:
**Some solids have air in them.
Can you prove that some solids have air in them?
Do you know some uses of gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and helium? I’m quite sure you all know that liquids can become gases and gases can become liquids? – Think about ice cream?
Do you know the meanings of evaporation and condensation? Think about a rainy day – hot day…what is happening?
Can you smell a gas? Why? How? Think about perfume!
What is:ecipitation, evaporating, condensation?
And what is the water cycle??
Know the following:** Three ways in which we can speed evaporation: Temperature (heating), Surface Area (increase the surface area), Movement of Air (Wind)

**The temperature at which water boils and freezes (100 Celsius and 0 Celsius)
Help here:
www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips

Smoking is really a big no-no for your heart and lungs! What you see in this image, are healthy lungs and damaged lungs. Can you identify the healthy lungs?

Where your heart is located.

Our heart is a muscle which functions as a very powerful pump to transport blood around the body. It beats somewhere between 60 and 100 times a minute, but can beat even faster than that if needed. Nutrients and oxygen are transported to cells in the body and waste products taken away. The right side of the heart receives blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side pumps from the lungs to the rest of the body.

Just before each beat the heart fills with blood, it then contracts which squeezes the blood along.

When we need more energy, for example to run, the heart beats faster to pump more oxygen around the body. When your heart beats it sends a wave of pressure through all of your veins in your body. You can feel this pressure in some areas of the body (such as when a vein passes over a piece of bone). We call this your pulse. One place to feel your pulse is on your wrist in a straight line at the base of your thumb.

http://www.ifood.tv/blog/food-pyramid-for-kids-nutrition-guide

SOUND!

Click HERE to watch a great video about Sound.

Sounds are produced when something vibrates. It could be a vibrating string… A vibrating voice box… Or a vibrating drum. Any vibration will transfer energy to the surrounding particles, which in turn pass the vibrations along, creating a sound wave. The particles vibrate back and forth as the wave’s energy passes, but they don’t actually move along with the wave. Mechanical Waves: Because sounds rely on particles to transfer energy in this way, sound waves can only travel through matter. They are mechanical waves. Sound waves can travel through solids, liquids, or gases – but never through a vacuum, which contains no particles. There is no sound in the vacuum of space. Longitudinal Waves: The particles always vibrate along the direction the wave is travelling in, which means that sound is a longitudinal wave. Pitch – Whether a sound is high or low is called the pitch of the sound. This is determined by the frequency of the wave; the number of waves passing a point each second, measured in Hertz. Pitch = frequency of wave. The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch. The lower the frequency, the lower the pitch. Amplitude. The loudness of a sound is affected by the height of the wave – called the amplitude. Volume of sound = amplitude of wave. The higher the amplitude, the louder the sound. We hear sound when vibrations travel through the air into our ears, where they cause small bones in the middle ear to vibrate. This movement is converted to electrical pulses, which are sent to our brain for decoding.

What is an echo?

When a sound wave strikes a surface it can bounce back, meaning the reflected wave can travel back to the source and be heard. The sound wave does not need a hard surface to reflect. The wave can be reflected whenever the properties of a material abruptly change. This can be at the boundary between two liquids, or the boundary between air and water. Echoes are used in sonar, for example to measure the distance to objects, and the depth of water. Because the speed of sound is known, the distance can be calculated by timing how long the echo takes to return.

Can sound travel in space?

In science fiction, explosions and engine noise can often be heard in space, but this is only done for dramatic effect. There are very few molecules in space, and it is almost a perfect vacuum. Because of this, there is nothing for sound waves to travel through, and therefore sound cannot be heard.

How are sound waves used to investigate the structure of the Earth?

Earthquakes cause waves, which travel through the Earth. These seismic waves travel at the speed of sound and tell us about the structure of the Earth. By measuring the time taken for different waves to pass through the Earth, we can predict the position and density of layers within the Earth.

How does your ear work?
The ear contains a membrane called the eardrum. When sound waves pass through air, the vibrations make the eardrum vibrate. This causes tiny bones in the ear to vibrate, which pass the vibrations to the inner ear. The inner ear contains thousands of tiny hairs and is filled with fluid. When the hairs vibrate, they stimulate nerves and send signals to the brain. This produces the sensation of “hearing” sound.

How do musical instruments produce sound?
Musical instruments are usually classified according to the way they produce sound; wind, string and percussion instruments all produce sound through resonance. All objects vibrate with a specific resonant frequency.

String instruments produce sound when strings vibrate; wind instruments use a vibrating column of air; and percussion instruments use vibrating blocks, plates, or membranes to produce sound.

What are beats?
When two sounds have a similar frequency, they can combine to produce beats. The volume of the combined sound is heard to pulse, increasing and decreasing. These beats have a frequency equal to the difference between the frequencies of the two sounds. As the frequencies become closer, the difference becomes smaller, and the beats become less frequent. This can be used to tune instruments. A tuning fork can be used to sound the required note; the instrument is then used to sound the note and adjusted until beats are heard. When the instrument is tuned the time between the beats will increase as the two notes become closer in frequency.

What is the speed of sound?
The speed of sound is different in every material. In air, the speed of sound increases slightly as temperature increases, but is approximately 340 m/s at room temperature. This is noticeable over large distances. At a distance of 100 m there will be a delay, of just under a third of a second, between seeing an event and hearing the sound associated with it.

This speed is equivalent to around 1200 km/h or 770 mph, and was first officially reached by aircraft in 1947. Although there are reports that some German aircraft flew faster than the speed of sound during World War II, these are controversial and cannot be confirmed.

What determines the speed of sound in a medium?

The speed of sound is determined by the material it travels through. Temperature can affect the speed of sound, and the speed of the vibrations in a material increases if the temperature of the medium increases. The elasticity and density of the medium also affect the speed of sound. In a dense material where the particles are heavier sound travels more slowly. The elasticity describes how much the medium changes in response to pressure. In a material which stretches easily when a force is applied, like rubber, the speed of sound is low.

How is loudness measured?
Loudness is a measure of how loud a sound is perceived to be, although this can depend on factors, such as the frequency of the sound. It is strongly related to the level of sound pressure (the increase in air pressure caused by the sound wave), which is measured in decibels. For this reason, decibels are commonly used to indicate the loudness of a sound.

The decibel scale is logarithmic. Every increase of ten decibels (one bel) results in the sound becoming ten times louder. This means that 20 dB is ten times louder than 10 dB, and 30 dB is 100 times louder than 10 dB.

These apparently small changes in the decibel level can result in a large difference in the loudness. For example, an increase of only 3 dB results in the loudness approximately doubling.
What is the range of human hearing?

Humans can hear sounds with a frequency of 20 Hz up to around 20,000 Hz. As we age, our ability to hear high frequency sounds diminishes. Dogs and cats can hear much higher frequencies; dogs can hear sounds of over 40,000 Hz, which means that whistles can be made that are audible to dogs, but silent to humans.

Source: twig-it.com

Click HERE to watch a video about how water came to our planet, Earth. In this video, you will learn about Nasa flying a satellite into a comet!

On THIS LINK you can watch a video about sound waves.

On THIS LINK you can decide if sound travels through air!

 

http://www.communication4all.co.uk/Science%202/Bean%20Flashcard%20Set.pdf
Through this link [which will open in a new window] you can learn about day/night.
http://www.ictgames.com/dayNight/index.html

A video still of the famous Diet Coke and Mentos experiment

Coke and Mentos! Exactly why Coke and Mentos produce these awesome eruptions is still a much debated topic. Scientists are still wracking their brains on what is precisely going on in that bottle of fizz. For example, there is debate about why diet cola works better than regular. Is it the artificial sweetener? The jury’s out. One good reason for using diet drinks however is that they are less sticky and messy to clean up! We’ve checked out the theories and this is what we think:

The gas that makes Coke fizzy is called Carbon Dioxide – CO2. All that CO2 is trapped in the liquid inside the bottle and is held in place by the pressure and the surface tension of the water in the Coke (water molecules are attracted to each other and they form almost a net that keeps the CO2 molecules in place in the Coke, stopping them from turning into a gas).

If you shake the bottle and open the lid all that CO2 will escape from the water as gas, usually taking some of the coke along with it.

There is also another way to release the CO2. If you provide somewhere for the CO2 bubbles to grow then they can then escape as gas. And these places are called nucleation sites.

That’s one of the secrets of Mentos: They’re covered in lots of little pits that act as these nucleation sites. When you throw a tube of Mentos into the Coke loads of bubbles form in these pits creating a whole load of gas that rushes to escape the bottle producing your characteristic eruption. Plus, the other secret is that Mentos are covered in a layer of gelatin and gum arabic that dissolves in the water, breaking down some of that surface tension. This means that the CO2 can be released ever easier!

DO THIS WITH AN ADULT!

You know you can put out a candle flame by pouring water on it. In this science magic trick or demonstration, the candle will go out when you pour ‘air’ onto it.

Candle Science Magic Trick Materials

  • a lit candle
  • a transparent glass (so people can see what is inside the glass)
  • baking soda (sodium bicarbonate)
  • vinegar (weak acetic acid)

Set up the Magic Trick

In the glass, mix together a little baking soda and vinegar.

How to Blow Out the Candle with Chemistry

Simply pour the gas from the glass onto the candle. The flame will be extinguished. Another way to perform this trick is to pour the gas that you just made into an empty glass and then pour the apparently empty glass over the candle flame.

How the Candle Trick Works

When you mix baking soda and vinegar together, you produce carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is heavier than air, so it will sit in the bottom of the glass. When you pour the gas from glass onto the candle, you are pouring out the carbon dioxide, which will sink and replace the (oxygen-containing) air surrounding the candle with carbon dioxide. This suffocates the flame and it goes out.

Did You Know?

• Most of the air you breathe out is carbon dioxide.

• Carbon dioxide in its solid state is called dry ice. At room temperature, it changes from a solid directly to a gas though a process called sublimation. This gas appears as a fog and is commonly used in Halloween decorations.

• The average tree in a backyard removes 330 pounds of carbon dioxide from the air each year, while producing 260 pounds of oxygen.

 

Oxygen Ratio in Air –only with an adult!

  • Tall Glass
  • Rubber Band
  • Basin

Note : Always Wear your Safety Glass.

Production of Oxygen Gas :

how-make

( Always find a good Place to do your Experiments without any disturbance )

Attach the candle in center of the basin by dropping few drops of wax. Now Pour water in Basin about inch, then light the candle, when candle fire becomes stable invert the glass over the candle in such way that slightest bit of rim of the glass goes under water. Watch the result the candle will light for 10 to 15 seconds (Depends upon the size of the glass) then goes out.

basin with glass
As it Burns the water in glass starts rising and when it goes out water stops rising.

basin with glass 2

Apply the rubber band at raised level of water in the glass. Measure the distance between rims of the glass to rubber band it will be 2 inches if glass if 10 inches tall. This proves that the ration oxygen is 1:5 or 20% in the air. The ratio of oxygen is different in different place suppose if you live in big cities like Karachi, then oxygen ration will be 20% or less.

explanation (1)

Fire needs oxygen. The Burning candle used up all oxygen in the air in the glass and goes out. Water rose up because missing of oxygen, then air becomes lighter inside the glass then the air outside of the glass. The outside air pressed down on the water more strongly than the air inside the glass did, and then it pushed the water inside the glass in the proportion of pressure difference.

scienceexperiment

In this activity, let’s see if decreasing the temperature of water vapor increases the rate of condensation.
Material
2 wide clear plastic cups
2 tall clear plastic cups
Hot tap water
Piece of ice
Magnifier
Procedures:
1. Fill two punch cups about 2/3 full of hot tap water.
2. Quickly place a tall clear plastic cup over each of the
punch cups as shown.
3. Place a piece of ice on the top of one of the cups and wait about 2-3 minutes.
4. After the ice has been on the cup for 2-3 minutes,remove it and use a paper towel to dry off the water from the melted ice.
5. Look closely at the top of each cup. Use a magnifier if
you have one. What do you notice?
Think about this …
Water evaporates all the time from oceans, lakes, rivers, and
other bodies of water. What do you think happens when the
water vapor gets high into the sky and meets colder air? How
does the activity you just did help you answer this question?
Where’s the Chemistry?
When water exists as a gas (water vapor) the molecules are
very far apart. But when water vapor or any gas is cooled, the
molecules slow down and do not move so far apart from each
other. As a gas is cooled, and the molecules move closer
together, they can change back into a liquid. This process is
called condensation. You saw in the activity that decreasing
the temperature increases the rate of condensation.

Gases – Expanding Possibilities! Again, do this with an adult
Magma is made of melted rock and dissolved gases deep
inside the earth. It is the gases in magma that under certain
circumstances can cause a volcanic eruption. Yes, gas has
the power to blow a hole through a mountain! Try this activity
to see how increasing pressure affects gases. Since you can’t
tunnel through the earth for this activity, you will increase
pressure by warming the air inside a bottle.
Materials:
• Empty ½ liter plastic bottle
• Plastic cup
• Flexible straw
• Clay
• Room temperature water
• Hot tap water
• Bucket or tray
Procedures:
1. Place the straw in the bottle so that the flexible end is sticking out.
Squeeze the clay tightly around the straw and the mouth of the bottle to
make an airtight seal.
2. Fill a cup about ¾ full of water. Bend the flexible end of the straw, so that you can place the end of the straw in the water while holding the bottle over the tray or bucket, tilted downward as shown below.
3. Hold the bottle near the top end while a partner pours hot tap water over the bottom end of the bottle.
4. Watch the end of the straw in the water. What do you notice? If you see bubbling, what do you think caused it?
Think about this …
In this activity, the warmth from the water moves into the air inside the bottle. The pressure inside the bottle increases causing the gas to push on the air in the straw. It even pushes on the water in the cup. This is what happened when you saw the bubbles in the water. Inside the earth, the gases in magma push on layers of solid rock. What might happen if the layers of rock can’t take the pressure?
Where’s the Chemistry?
When magma is very deep inside the earth, all the layers of rock above it push down. Magma pushes on the layers of rock too. As magma moves closer to the surface, fewer layers of rock push down. Like the expanding air in the bottle, the gases in magma expand as much as the rock will allow. Near the surface, the pressure can be so great that the gases in magma can bend and even break solid rock.
http://portal.acs.org/portal/PublicWebSite/education/whatischemistry/scienceforkids/solidsliquidsgases/gases/CSTA_014978

cheese

Make your own CHEESE! – with a parent/adult
To create a chemical reaction that will make cheese.

What You Need
• 1/4 cup Milk (whole milk works best)
• 1 tablespoon vinegar
• Small jar with lid
• Coffee filter
• Another small container

To Do and Observe
1. Pour 1/4 cup milk into the jar. 2. Add one tablespoon of vinegar to the jar. (Instead of adding acid directly to milk, most cheese-makers add a bacteria which slowly releases acid as it grows). 3. Close the lid tightly! Shake the jar to mix well. 4. What does the mixture look like? 5. Position the coffee filter over the opening of the second container, and hold an edge of it with one hand (or ask someone to help) so the filter doesn’t “fall in” while you complete step 6. 6. Carefully pour your mixture over the filter. Be patient with this step! You might need to pour part of your mixture, wait while it filters, then pour the rest. 7. Carefully close the edges of the filter and squeeze the rest of the liquid through the filter. 8. You should be left with curds in the filter. You can squeeze these together and say cheese (but don’t eat it)! 9. What is the texture of your cheese? What kind of cheese does it look like?

What’s Going On
Casein is one molecule found in milk. Molecules and atoms are tiny particles that make up everything around us. Vinegar (acetic acid) contains loose hydrogen atoms. The molecules of the milk mix with the loose hydrogen atoms in the acid to create a chemical reaction. The casein molecules in the milk have a negative charge. The loose hydrogen atoms in the acid have a positive charge. Opposite charges attract, so the casein molecules and loose hydrogen atoms group together and make clumps that you can see. The clumps are called curds, and are used to make cheese. The liquid is called whey. Often, bacteria and mold are also added to give cheese more flavor.

Parent Tips
Try this experiment with different types of milk (1%, 2%, heavy cream, etc.). What?s different about the resulting cheese? Encourage your kids to investigate how cheese is made commercially? what’s the difference between different types of cheese? What makes Swiss different from Cheddar?

Your OWN ice cream! – try it at home – with a parent/adult

Objective
To discover the chemistry of ice cream by creating your own.

What You Need
• 1/2 cup whole milk (skim or 1% don’t work as well).
• 1 Tablespoon sugar
• 1 teaspoon vanilla extract, chocolate syrup, or any other flavor you like
• 1 spoon
• 1 small Zip-Lock bag
• 1 larger Zip-Lock bag
• 2 cups of crushed ice
• 6 Tablespoons of regular table salt

To Do and Observe
1. Combine the milk, sugar, and flavoring together in the small zip lock baggie, seal it and shake it a few times so everything is well mixed.
2. In a bigger zip lock baggie, add the crushed ice and table salt.
3. Put the smaller baggie into the bigger baggie that has the salt and ice in it. Seal the bigger baggie.
4. Gently squish the two baggies together for about 5-10 minutes.
5. As you do this, watch how the milk mixture is binding together. It is up to the ice cream creator (you!) to decide on how thick the ice cream will be. The longer you squish it, the thicker it will be. So, you can decide when the ice cream is ready!

What’s Going On
The salt we add to the ice creates salt water which is actually colder than ordinary water. In other words, salt water has to get colder than 0 degrees C before it will freeze. In this case, the milk is like regular water and freezes when surrounded by the colder salt water. This allows the ingredients to mix together so they form ice cream.

Parent Tips
Encourage your child to think about what might happen if you just used regular ice instead of the ‘salt water’ ice to make your ice cream. Or if it would turn out the same if you just put your mixture in the freezer instead of squished it

icecream

 

We are kicking off with a favourite reaction, baking soda and vinegar. Source: science-sparks.com

baking soda reaction

Ingredients

  • Ice cube tray
  • Food colouring ( optional )
  • Bicarbonate of Soda ( Baking Soda )
  • Water
  • Vinegar

baking soda

Instructions

  • Mix some baking soda with water ( add food colouring too if you want ). I didn’t measure but added a good amount of the baking soda.
  • Freeze for a few hours or overnight.
  • Warning – this bit might get messy, so do outside or use a big tray. Be careful not to get vinegar into little eyes as well.
  • Let the cubes defrost a little, and then add some vinegar
  • Watch the fizzing.

baking soda reaction

The Science Bit

Vinegar (an acid ) and bicarbonate of soda ( an alkali ) react together to neutralise each other. This reaction releases carbon dioxide, a gas which is the bubbles you see.

As the Baking Soda is frozen in the ice it takes a while for the reaction to start in this activity, but it’s worth the wait.


Your heart as a muscle


How we hear

How we hear
Autumn_Leaves



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